What is psychology?

Excluding other human minds, our mind is the most complicated piece of the universe currently we know about, maybe our brain isn’t complex enough to understand themselves.

The word psychology comes from a Latin word, that is ‘the study of the soul’ while its formal definition has evolved over several decades. Today, we call it ‘the study of behaviour and mental processes’. From the efforts of those early thinkers up until today, the field of psychology has all about taking some of the big questions:

  • How can humans commit genocide or torture other humans? How do we know it is horrible?
  • Do we have free will, or we are driven by our environment, biology and unconscious influences?
  • What is mental illness and what can we do about it?
  • Am I still human, how our brain works, how they can break or heal, why do we behave the way we do or not, what does it mean to be thinking, feeling or alive?

When hearing the word psychology we mostly think therapist, sitting on a couch, listening to the patients/subjects, unpacking details of its day or planning, probably picturing Sigmund Freud with his cigar. Today, psychology is one of the most widely diverse sciences, in terms of question it proposes, the method it applies and different school of thought and discipline it contains. There were a lot of schools who thought about how the study of the human mind should be tackled, mainly there where the ideas of Structuralism, Functionalism and psychoanalysis.

Scientific psychology started in 1879 in Germany when physician Wilhelm Wundt set up the first laboratory at university of Leipzig just a few years after publishing his ‘principles of physiology psychology’ considered to be first psychiatric textbook, Wundt and his student Edward Bradford Titchener took questions from chemistry and physic and argued those people could break down all the matter into simple elements and structure, why couldn’t they do similar with brain. They tried to understand the structure by getting the patients to talk inwards, asking them how they felt when they saw the sunrise, smell a flower or licking ice cream. Despite its rigid sounding name, it was too subjective, you may sense or feel different with other person does even if you lick the same ice cream. Psychologist, of course, can’t observe a patient inner thought, feeling, so ultimately the structuralism school of thought very short-lived.

William James proposed a certain set of questions focusing on why we think and feel, basically he focused on the function of behaviour and he called it functionalism which was inspired by evolution procedure. William James defined psychology as ‘the science of mental life’, similar to Sigmund Freud.

Sigmund Freud began his medical career at Venice hospital but in 1886 he started his in practice specializing on nervous disorder, during his practice he witnessed his colleague Josef Breuer, who treated a patient called Anna O. with a new talking cure, basically, he just told her to talk her symptoms, the more she talked, the more it pulled out her traumatic memories and the symptoms were reduced. It was a breakthrough and it changed Freud forever. From then on Freud encouraged his patients to talk freely about whatever comes in their mind to ‘free association’. This technique provided a base to his career and the entire branch of psychology.

In the 1900s he published his book ‘the interpretation of dreams’ when he introduced his theory of psychoanalysis. Now when you probably think psychoanalysis as a therapist and a couch scenario, well that is a part of it. Freud’s concept was much more complex than that and it was revolutionary. The radical cornea of psychoanalysis is that the theory of our personality is shaped under ‘unconscious motives’ basically Freud suggested that we all are profoundly affected by mental process that we are not even aware and this sounds almost obvious to us but in 1990 it was something that our mind themselves didn’t know, it was hard to grasp as all organism evolving by natural selection, it was abstract, invisible and then was something seems to be irrational.

Another part of Freud’s theory was that the subconscious was literally below consciousness and was still discoverable even though you were not aware of it, you could understand it through therapeutic techniques, using dream, projection and free association to root our own repressed feeling and gain self-insight. So Freud basically said mental disorder can be healed through therapy and self-discovery. This was really breakthrough because prior to these people with a mental disorder were either confined to a sanatorium or the worst shackled to bed frames.

The next big shape up role came in the first half of 20th century when behaviourist came in the practice like Ivan Pavlov, John B. Watson, and B.F. Skinner. They focused on the theory of observable behaviour. Skinner, who experimented on rats, pigeon and babies in boxes and conditioned them to perform a certain behaviour, he published ‘behaviour of organism’ assuring the era of behaviourism which remained all the rage in the 1960s.

I will be writing about the other major topics and theories in future blogs.

P.S- edited and made it as a post.

  • #psychology #generalpsychology #wilhelmwundt #sigmundfreud #bfskinner
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    WHAT IS INTELLIGENCE ?

    Geek, nerd, smarty pants ,bookworm, gear-head, you might have heard terms like this before, may be you even have been on the receiving end of one of them.But actually defining intelligence is lot more trickier than just come up with new names for smart people.

    I mean intelligence is not like height, or weight you cant just toss them on scale and get an exact scale of measurement. It has different meaning for different cultures and ages and skills sets.

    so,

    WHAT IS INTELLIGENCE???

    That’s a question that does nit give us lot of answers but it does open up a bunch of other equally important and interesting questions.

    like,

    WHAT INFLUENCES IT, AND HOW CAN IT BE ASSESSED ?

    IS IT A SINGLE, GENERAL ABILITY, OR DOES IT COVER A RANGE OF APTITUDES, SKILLS AND TALENTS ?

    HOW DO THINGS LIKE CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION FACTOR IN OR GENETICS, ENVIRONMENT, OR EDUCATION?

    and WHAT ABOUT EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE ?

    Most degree at its best thing that intelligence is not as a concrete thing so much as a concept.

    INTELLIGENCE  (definition )

    The ability to learn from experience, solve problem, and knowledge to adopt to new experiences.

    We often use intelligence test to assess and compare aptitude.But these test have long complex history.

    INTELLIGENCE TEST (definition)

    A method for assessing an individual’s mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others using numerical scores.

    So as you see there are reasons that intelligence is one of the most hotly debated subject in psychology, it’s complicated and controversial.

    What if from the great rubix cube solver but a terrible speller or a truly gifted artist who barely mastered long division. Can  anyone say I was intelligent or not, based on these different aptitudes or would it be more accurate to measure my brain power on several different scales.

    Around 20th century, British psychologist,  Charles Spearman, suggested that, yes we do ave one comprehensive general intelligence that underlies all our specific mental abilities. He called it the   G-FACTOR.

    Spearman consider that well people may have special talent like solving crossword or playing saxophones those still fall under the G-FACTOR.And he helped developing specific procedures called FACTOR ANALYSIS.

    FACTOR ANALYSIS (definition)

    A statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test, used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlies a person’s total score.

    Factor analysis try to determine how certain cluster of skills might co-relate with another one, like someone who test well in spatial skills might be good with numbers. We might then refer about cluster of skills that factor has SPATIAL-NUMERIC REASONING.But Spearman’s G-Factor was something uber factor connected to all intelligence behavior from engineer, to healing, to survival skills and that’s why people who do well in one kind of cognitive test tend to do well on others.

    But you could imagine reducing intelligence to a single numerical test score was and is problematic.

    LOUIS LEON THURSTONE, American pioneer in the field of PSYCHOMETRIC, and one of the Spearman’s first challenger was not into ranking people on single scale.

    Thurstone, administered 56 different test to his subjects and then use them to identify 7 different clusters of mental abilities. 

    1. SPATIAL ABILITY
    2. VERBAL COMPREHENSION
    3. WORD FLUENCY
    4. PERCEPTUAL SPEED 
    5. NUMERICAL ABILITY
    6. INDUCTIVE REASONING 
    7. MEMORY

    But researchers followed up on his findings they actually see high scores in one aptitude usually good scores in the others essentially backing up some evidence for some kind of G-Factors. Even though their ideas did not often align Spearman and Thurstone together pay the way for more contemporary theories on intelligence.

    For example,

    American psychologist, HOWARD GARDNER, use intelligence as multiple ability that come in different form. He refers instances of brain damage where one ability mar=y be destroyed while others stayed perfectly intact.

    SAVANT’s usually have some limited abilities but one exceptional ability when it comes to like computing figures or memorizing complete work of Shakespeare.

    SAVANT SYNDROME (definition)

    A condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skills such as in computation or drawing.

    To Gardner they suggest that we have multiple intelligence beyond the G-factor, in fact he believes that we have 8 intelligence, ranging from our skills wit numbers and words to our ability to understand our physical space and the natural world.

    • Musical
    • Mathematical
    • Linguistic
    • Naturalist
    • Interpersonal
    • Intrapersonal
    • spatial

    American psychologist, Robert Sternberg  tends to agree with Gardner, though he blows them down into 3 intelligence.

    • Analytical or problem solving intelligence
    • Creative intelligence or the ability to adopt new situation
    • Practical intelligence for everyday task

    But researcher have suggested that even these difference ways to be smarter are also linked by some underlying general intelligence factor.

    So what about less tangible form of intelligence.

    LIKE, CREATIVITY, OUR ABILITY TO PRODUCE IDEAS THAT ARE BOTH NOVEL AND VALUABLE ?

    How could you test that demands one correct answer accounts for more creative solutions, so called the  divergent thinking.

    Well traditional intelligence test can’t.So we have some test that look at creative potential. We don’t have a standardized system for quantifying and creativity but Sternberg  and his colleagues have identified  5 main component of creativity which are useful for framing our understanding. What creative intelligence is and how it works?

    1. EXPERTISE (knowing a lot about a lot).
    2. IMAGINATIVE THINKING
    3. VENTURESOME PERSONALITY
    4. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION
    5. CREATIVE ENVIRONMENT

    We can think about one person who has all this 5 components i.e, Sherlock Homes.But he was pretty weak on the other form of intelligence, i.e, emotional intelligence.

    Emotional intelligence defined in 1997 by psychologist Salovey and John Mayer is the ability to perceive, understand,manage, and use emotion.

    PERCEIVING EMOTIONS (definition)

    Being able to recognize them in faces and even in music, film, and stories.

    UNDERSTANDING EMOTIONS (definition)

    Being able to predict them and how they might change.

    MANAGING EMOTIONS (definition)

    Knowing how to appropriately express yourself in various situations.

    and finally emotional intelligence also means using emotions to enable adaptive or creative thinking.

    Like knowing how to manage conflicts, or work with others.

    Emotional intelligence can be measure to some degree through test but there is no standardized ways like sign or numerical value.

    French psychologist ALFRED BINET & THEODORE SIMONE who developed a test to measure a child’s mental age.The level of performance associated with a certain chronological age.

    BINET believed that his test could measure a child’s current mental abilities but that intelligence wasn’t fix when born. Her believed that person’s capabilities would be raised with proper attention, self discipline & practice. In other words he was no eugenics. He was hoping that his test would improve children’s education by identifying those who need extra attention. But Binet also feared that these test would do wrong hands be used to do just do the opposite, labeling children as lost courses, limiting their opportunities.

    German psychologist, WILLIAM STERN  used revision of Binet’s work and created famous INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT or IQ.

    IQ= Mental age/chronological age   X    100

    Unlike Binet, LEWIS TERMAN used these numerical findings as kind of label and he thought his test could as he put it.

    “ULTIMATELY RESULT IN CURTAILING THE REPRODUCTION OF FEEBLE MINDEDNESS”.

    IN THE FIRST HALF OF 20TH CENTURY, INTELLIGENCE TEST SCORE WERE TO ENFORCE THE STERILIZATION OF ABOUT 60,000 PEOPLE.

    Other Eugenic effort persisted further into the century and there is evident of

    POOR AFRICAN AMERICAN, NATIVE AMERICAN, AND LATINA WOMEN BEING FORCIBLY OR COVERTLY STERILIZED IN LARGE NUMBERS AS RECENTLY AS THE 1970’S.

    ADOLF HITLER took the idea of intelligence even with darker conclusion.

    THEY STERILIZED OR SIMPLY EXECUTED HUNDREDS OF THOUSAND OF VICTIMS BASED ON THEIR ANSWERS TO (PSEUDO)- IQ TEST QUESTION.

    Today we understand that intelligence as defined by all other people we have talked about here does appear to be real & measurable phenomenon but no one can say they have dis tangled all of them would be genetics, environment, educational, or economic component.

    In the end, its the best to think of intelligence is something about which we still got to learn.

    NEXT blog will be about how we test intelligence.

    LEARNED ABOUT 

    • defining intelligence
    • types of intelligence
    • G-factor
    • Sherlock Homes
    • IQ score
    • Intelligence controversy

     

    PERSONALITY

    PERSONALITY

    How would you describe your personality?

    May be,friendly,creative,nervous,outgoing.
    Greek physician HIPPOCRATES believes personality manifested in itself in four different humors.
    According to traditional Chinese medicine our personality it depends on balance of five elements: Earth,Wind,Water,Metal and Fire.
    According to Hindu Ayurvedic medicine says it is unique combinations of three different mind,body,principle called dosh.
     But SIGMUND FREUD thought personality is depend on who is winning the battle of ID,EGO and SUPEREGO.
    Personality is one of the most complex and one of the most contested.
    Now,almost everyone have heard about the ego, the Oedipus complex, penis envy, inferiority complex even the idea of the self help itself.
    These notions represent the starting points for some of the biggest and most compelling question in the field.

    WHAT MAKES US WHO WE ARE??

    Personality is your distinctive and enduring characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and behaving.
    In psychology, personality is studied in two broad ways
    1. By trying to UNDERSTAND DIFFERENCE in SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTIC.Like, introverts vs extroverts.
    2. By looking at HOW ALL THE VARIOUS PARTS OF EACH PERSON MESH TOGETHER AS A WHOLE.

    Basically what are our characteristic which combine to make ME as me and YOU as you.

     THE FIRST AND INFLUENTIAL theory

    #PSYCHOANALYTIC PERSPECTIVE by SIGMUND FREUD.
    Through his clinical observation, he came to theorized about existence about the UNCONSCIOUS, a vast reservoir of often unacceptable and frequently hard-to-tolerate thoughts, feelings, desires and memories.
    FREUD’s idea of unconscious in different thing from the contemporary idea of unconscious information processing with processing information.FREUD believed personality are largely shaped by ENDURING CONFLICT BETWEEN OUR IMPULSES TO DO WHATEVER WE FEEL LIKE, AND OUR RESTRAINT TO CONTROL THESE URGES between our pleasure seeking aggressive urges and inner social control over them.
    Our mind is divided in three interesting parts :ID, EGO, AND THE SUPEREGO.
     
    Its like ice berg, underwater chunk is ID (conscious energy),primitive and instinctive self.FREUD says ID is all about SEX, AGGRESSION so called PLEASURE PRINCIPLE of an immediate gratification.
    The EGO develops in order to mediate between the unrealistic ID and the external real world.It is the decision making component of personality.Ideally the ego works by reason, whereas the ID, is chaotic and totally unreasonable.
    Eventually kids develop the ego part in there personality that largely conscious component with deals with reality.
    SUPEREGO incorporates the values and morals of society which are learned from one’s parents and others.It consist of two system ,one is the conscience and the ideal self.
    The conscience can punish the ego through causing feelings of guilt.The ideal self is an imaginary picture of how you ought to be and represents career aspirations ,how to treat other people, and how to behave as member of society.
    FREUD proposes that our EGO uses of indirect and unconscious DEFENSE MECHANISM, in psychoanalytic theory, the ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality to protect themselves from fear.
    FREUD was convinced that our personality consists of 5 PSYCHO SEXUAL STAGES 
    The childhood stages of development during which, according to Freud , the ID’s pleasure seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones.
    Infants
    • Oral stage (10-18 months )-mouth-sucking,biting,chewing.
    • Anal stage (18-36 months )-bowel and bladder movement.
    • Phallic stage (3-6 months )– genitals, incestuous sexual feelings.
    • Latency stage (6 to puberty )-dormant sexual feelings.
    • Genital stage ( puberty on)-maturation of sexual interests.

    Certain conflicts were result in any of these stages, the person could develop a FIXATION, according to FREUD, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psycho sexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved.

    LIKE,a baby was over fed or neglected or under fed they might fixate in the oral stage and orally fixate adult might seek oral gratification in excessive eating or chain smoking may develop with depending or aggression.
    Psychoanalytic Approach is only one perspective on what make us WHO WE ARE?? 
    HUMANISTIC THEORIES ,view personality with a focus on the potential for healthy personal growth
    ABRAHAM MASLOW is one of these guys who believed in pyramid shape hierarchy needs,in which,one of the basic need is food,shelter. MASLOW believed that the top two row of that pyramid are the real growth in personality takes place.First, SELF ACTUALIZATION or the need to live up to our full potential and then ,with SELF-TRANSCENDENCE to fine meaning,identity, purpose beyond our self.
    American psychologist CARL ROGER, who proposed PERSON-CENTERED PERSPECTIVE.He believed, we are basically an egg, so long as we are nurtured in a growth promoting environment that he thought required three condition.
    1. GENUINENESS-Like parents and teacher should be transparent and open with their feeling.
    2. ACCEPTANCE-When folks are accepting people around them wont be afraid to be themselves or make mistakes.
    3. EMPATHY-When the ability to share others feeling in reflect their meanings.

    Roger thought these traits as nutrients to make a personality to grow in a healthy SELF-CONCEPT that mix of thoughts and feelings that answer the fundamental question WHO AM I?

    So,psychoanalytic theory and humanistic theory of personalty were and are incredibly influential even if one was little assorted and the other little sunshine in rainbows.
    NEXT blog will be about newer way of looking personality and measuring it.

    SLEEP DISORDER

    ARE YOU GETTING ENOUGH SLEEP ?

    The amount of sleep a person need depends on many factor,including age.For instance,in general:
    • Infants require about 14-15 hours a day
    • Teenagers require 8.5-9.5 hours on average
    • Most adult need 7 to 9 hours a night for best amount of sleep,although some people may need as few as 6 hours to sleep and some may need 10 hours.

    Sleep Deprivation

    The amount of sleep a person needs also increase if he or she has been deprived of sleep in previous days.Getting too late sleep creates “sleep debt”,which is much like being overdrawn at a bank.Eventually,your body will demand that the debt be repaid.We don’t seem to adapt to getting less sleep than we need,while we may get use to a sleep-depriving schedule,or our judgement,reaction time,and other functions are still impaired.

    Consequences

    • Memory loss
    • Depression
    • Immune system suppression and slow reaction time
    • Increase in perception of pain

    Sleep disorder

    A sleep disorder is a medical disorder of the sleep pattern of a person or animal.Some sleep disorder are serious enough to interfere with normal physical,mental,social and emotional functioning.

    The most common sleep disorder :

    • Snoring,when airway of a person becomes partially blocked,this restriction prevents some of the air that was inhaled from getting into lungs.The extra air get redirected to the mouth,creating a negative pressure which vibrates the soft tissue of the palate and create snoring.
    • Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder (DSPD),it is the inability to awaken or fall asleep at socially acceptable times but no problem with sleep maintenance,a disorder of circadian rhythms.
    • Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA),it occurs when airway of a person is partially or completely collapse repeatedly throughout the night.During sleep,the soft tissue in the throat relax.When the airway is blocked,the oxygen level in the body drops causing the person to wake up long enough to begin breathing normally again.
    • Insomnia,recurring problems in falling or staying asleep.
    • Narcolepsy,it is a sleep disorder characterized(sometimes)by uncontrollable sleep attacks.The major identifying characteristic is excessive daytime sleepiness,accompanied by catalepsy  and few other hallmark symptoms.
    • REM Sleep Behaviour disorder,appears to be with some deficiencies.
    • Night Terrors,most common with children age 7,may be stress,fatigue,sleep deprivation and sleeping in unfamiliar surroundings.

    Treatment

    Treatment for sleep disorder can generally be grouped into four categories:
    • Behavioral and Psycho therapeutic
    • Rehabilitation and management
    • medication
    • other somatic treatment

    TO SLEEP,PERCHANCE TO DREAM

    What is SLEEP??

    sleep is a periodic,natural,reversible and near to total loss of consciousness(it is different from hibernation or being in coma).

    Why we sleep?

    • Recuperation:neurons and other cells to rest and repair themselves
    • growth: pituitary gland releases growth hormones,like babies sleep all day and they grow
    • mental functions:like improving memory,process activity of our whole day,restore

    How we sleep?

    Exactly how we sleep or why do we sleep ?though sleep is essential and is more difficult to pin down.As William Charles Dement a pioneering US Sleep researcher and founder of the Sleep Research center at Stanford University.He began his work in sleep and started research on sleeping subjects with the ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY (EEG)i.e,measure the brain’s electric activity.He discovered continuous recording of brain and eye activity during sleep and named them four distinct stages of sleep.

    4 distinct stage of sleep

    • NREM1
    • NREM2
    • NREM3
    • REM

    The whole day our endocrine system (ER) releases awake hormone like cortisol from Adrenal gland,at night sleep hormones from Pineal gland releases melatonin.

    • While sleeping your breathe slow downs but brain is still working which EEG shows as Alpha waves and are irregular with NREM1(non rapid eye movement 1) waves.At this stage we might experience hypnagogic sensations,for instance you feel like falling or body jerks.
    • NREM2-Deep sleep,more relaxed,sleep spindles definitely asleep but can be easily awaken
    • NREM3-comes with slow rolling delta waves,now you can have brief and fragmentary waves in first three stage of sleep
    • REM (important stage)-famous stage of sugar plum,eyeballs goes nuts,grand visual dreams.
    some sleep is like paradoxical-your motor cortex are jumping all over the place but your brain stem is blocking those messages leaving your muscles to be relaxed that is you are basically paralyzed  except your eyes.

    Your sleep cycle repeats every 90 minute,conditioning back and forth stages of sleep.Sleep is important for health,growth.Lack of sleep is terrible for health,mental ability and mood. In fact, it predicts for depression and is being linked to weight gain,hunger arousing,suppressing hormones.

    DREAMS !! What’s the real purpose of dreaming?

    The study of dreams is known as ONEIROLOGY.
    SIGMUND FREUD -he proposed dream as wish–fulfillment.He is also the author of ‘The interpretation of dreams’
    Other theories
    •  The information processing theory proposes that our dreams help us sort out and process that day’s event and fix them into out memories
    • The  physiological function theory suggest that dreaming may promote Neural development and preserve Neural pathways by providing the brain with stimulation.
    • Dreams are part of our cognitive development,they draw on our knowledge and understanding of the world,mimicking reality.
    • REM sleeps triggers Neural activity ,and dreams are Accidental Side Effect

    REM sleep vital both biologically and psychologically.

    MOTIVATION-HOW POWERFUL IT IS..!

    MOTIVATION

    Motivation in the basic sense is the need or desire to do something(whether that need is social,emotional,,biological,whether it motivates you to go college or to go office).It keeps you get moving.

    In Psychology

    it is described in one or more ways.
    Motivation is defined as the desire and action towards the goal directed behaviour.

    Why…what.. drives us ?

    • An evolutionary perspective theory
    In early 20th century the popular thing was our behaviour as instinct i.e, Innate ‘drives’ to act a certain way,but thing so called instinct theory was misguided because of THE PRESENCE OF A TENDENCY DOESN’T ALWAYS MEAN ITS SUPPOSED TO BE THERE.
    Evolution is an important chaotic process.Plenty of behaviour is just that could be accidents or revolutions.
    Late Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould said these accidents as spandrels.
    Today we define instinct as complex,unlearned behaviour that have a fix pattern throughout a species.
    For instance-Dogs and cats shake their fur instinctively when they are wet.
                            -Human babies know how to suck the minute they are born.
    Individual Experience -plays an important role in behaviour and motivation.
    • A drive reduction theory

    i.e, A psychological need ,or drive,simply compels us to reduce that need.

    It is simple as listening our stomach groaning and searching for food(chicken burger),and drive is hunger and drive reduction behaviour is food(chicken burger).
    Drive Reduction is all about maintaining your body’s HOMEOSTASIS,the balance if your physiological system.
    As we push our drive, we pull our drives that is by INCENTIVES –the positive or negative stimuli that either entice or repel us.
    For instance-the mouth watering smell of the chicken sandwich pulls us toward it just as much as our hunger pushes us.
    • Optimal arousal 

    it suggest rather than just reducing drive or tension like hunger.We are motivated to maintain a balance between stimulation and relaxation (drive reduction theory ).

    For instance-  You are studying even at weekends and feels like bored and lonely,so you call your friends to make some plan for outing with them.
    This optimal arousal theory suggest that they were motivated to remove both boredom and loneliness.
    • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

    Famous American psychologist Abraham Maslow illustrated shuffling of priorities in mid 1900.

    imgres

    • belonging and love
    • Basic physiological needs-Food,water,air,moderate temperature.
    • Safety
    • Esteem
    • Self actualization
    • Self transcendence

    Most psychological school of thought have agreed that we are driven by at least three big motivation SEX,HUNGER,NEED TO BELONG.Sex– its about survival of species through recreation and procreation both of which helps human to bond.Internally we are biologically driven by our sex hormones.We are also motivated by biological,socio-culture influence by TV,magazines but it is actually a need.Physiologically and psychologically it is important.
    Hunger – It usually begin with drop in sugar level in your blood level.
    Glucose – form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major sources of energy for body tissues.
    Initially your body won’t feel the drop in level but your brain will.

     HYPOTHALAMUS

    • in your brain
    • regulates body temperature,circadian rhythms and hunger,helps govern the endocrine system.
    • it motivates your blood chemistry and respond the high level of the hunger hormone GHRELIN  and low level of glucose by triggering the feeling of hunger.

    OUR HUNGER is shaped by our PSYCHOLOGY,CULTURE,AND MOOD.

    Need of belong-our social needs have to be balanced with our AUTONOMY or SENSE OF PERSONAL CONTROL, so we feel of both CONNECTED AND INDEPENDENT.
    Sometimes,we deny the sense of belonging and we feel of being ignored and rejected at some point of life.
    Culture all over the world gives OSTRACISM-social exclusion.

    NEVER UNDERESTIMATE THE POWER OF MOTIVATION BEHIND US.

    You can do everything possible on earth.

    EMOTION AND STRESS

    DID YOU KNOW ?

    That astronauts in space face hard time in communicating with words because their weightless bottle fluid face make all puffy and hard to read.
     Emotions are strange and powerful when we explain and the way we express.Emotions are just psychological phenomenal they affect our bodies and health because so many emotion have certain qualities.
     OUR FEELINGS AND THE BEHABIOURS THEY CAN DRIVE ALSO AFFECT THE MINDS,BODIES AND HEALTH OF THOSE AROUND US.
    The power is both positive and negative are strong that you may know.Lots of researchers have shown people with positive idea have live longer and healthier.
    Fear,Anger are more difficult in nature and how we handle them are related to a thing called STRESS.
    • STRESS is so powerful that it can straight up kill you in any number of ways

    BEFORE WE HARNESS ON THESE THINGS FIRST WE HAVE TO UNDERSTAND.STRESS AND EMOTION.

    What do you think ?

    this picture shows.
    Emotion expert psychologist LISA FELDMAN BARRETT  says it that facial expression are culturally universal.So all Greek, American are able to understand all expression.Happiness, sadness, disgust.Our expression just not only communicate our emotion.According to FACIAL FEEDBACK HYPOTHESIS – they can help to regulate our emotion too. Some people are better in reading your expression-INTROVERTS whereas, as EXTROVERTS are better in expressing them.Different culture express through particular GESTURES as in GREECE if you do thumps up that shows you don’t want to make anymore friends but in our country INDIA it say  good or you are OK.                                                         THERE ARE ALSO ABOUT OUR CONSCIOUS EXPERIENCE OF WHAT WE ARE FEELING.
    So, HOW DO WE ACTUALLY FEEL? WHAT EXACTLY IS FEEL? HOW MANY DIFFERENT EXPRESSION ARE?

    In 1970’s  CARROLL IZARD identified 10 distinct EMOTION.

    1. JOY
    2. SURPRISE 
    3. SADNESS
    4. ANGER
    5. DISGUST
    6. CONTEMPT 
    7. SHAME 
    8. FEAR
    9. GUILT
    10. INTEREST AND EXCITEMENT

    Other suggested that PRIDE should be added to list, some other believed that LOVE should be added.
    Today some psychologist describe emotion as TWO-DIMENSIONAL MODEL
    The idea is that any emotion you feel reading and is expressed on a spectrum and as a combination of wavelength roughly GOOD or BAD, AROUSAL- EXCITED OR NOT.
    Every emotion falls in this two dimensional model.
    Like-feeling depressed might be a combination of positive emotion and lack of excitement.Terrified is more than frighten.
    THESE POLARITIES AFFECT OUR PSYCHOLOGICAL STATES,AND THEREFORE ,OUR BODIES.
    Because you remember WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGICAL IS ULTIMATELY BIOLOGICAL. And when it comes to physical effects of our emotions it goes pretty much as we except.
    HAPPINESS IS HELPFUL whereas CHRONICLE ANGER OR DEPRESSION make us VULNERABLE to all kind of problem.
    And the good news is that if you are ANGRY or SAD WE OFTEN OVERESTIMATE THE DURATION OF OUR BAD MOODS AND UNDERESTIMATE OUR CAPACITY TO ADAPT AND BOUNCE BACK FROM TRAUMAS.
    Even if things feel depressed,stress full,hopeless. We all feel STRESS hourly or daily basis much like anger or joy. It can slowly build or suddenly end with great intensity.
    STRESS EXTREME can be bad for HEALTH but defining it is trickier.
    STRESS-the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events,that we view as challenging or threatening.
    OR, STRESS is more about reaction to disruptive stimulus.Our reaction stem impact from our APPRAISAL of that STIMULUS.

    A person can either get worked up about a missing a flight or increase work load.These external stress  falls in 3 categories.
    1. CATASTROPHES or unpredictable large scale events like natural disaster,war.
    2. SIGNIFICANT LIFE CHANCES-like having a child or getting married.
    3. EVERYDAY INCONVENIENCES-like caught in traffic.

    STRESS is ultimately natural you feel it for a reason.

    SHORT-LIVED STRESS can actually be a good thing to motivate ,to make you active when you need,you can actually find focus.It can improve your immune system like to heal from an accident.It does by realizing stress hormone ADRENALINE AND CORTISOL. These chemical messenger are what get your organ to respond the way you want.
    CHRONIC STRESS-can really spoil your body and mind.
    Researchers have shown PEOPLE SUFFERING FROM POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER (PTSD) EXPERIENCE HIGHER RATES OF DIGESTIVE,RESPIRATORY,CIRCULATORY AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES.
    ‘BRAIN-IN-THE-GUT’-ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM  which feel in regulating gastro-intestinal functioning this explain how stress causing digestive problem.
    STRESS actually gives you cholesterol problem.As LIVER,its function is to remove cholesterol and excess fat in blood so basically when stress is deliveredLIVER CAN NOT FILTER PROPERLY EXTRA FAT AND CHOLESTEROL PUMPS UPwhich is CIRCULATING IN YOUR BLOOD which can settle in HEART.
    STRESS also depend as LIFESTYLE OR BEHAVIOURAL FACTORS or SOCIAL FACTORS or BIOLOGICAL FACTORS.
    PEOPLE CHARACTERIZED BY THEIR OPTIMISM,HAPPINESS,LOVE AND POSITIVE FEELINGS OFTEN LIVE SIGNIFICANTLY LONGER

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